An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is constructed of a four level string
of numbers and dots, 0.0.0.0.
Your Internet Providers address is something like 234.342.77.345
If you wanted to tell your browser to get you the site for your local library
you would probably have to type in a number like that.
Easier to type in library.gov.au
The last two letters of an internet address refer to the country. nz, is of course new Zealand. de is Germany. Other parts of the address give you a clue as to whether it is a Government Department or a commercial company. There is one exception to the rule that the last two letters. If it doesn't have a country ending its either from the United States or from anywhere. Simple really. To go to a site enter the name www.google.com
That will take you to google one of the finest search engines about.
Searching on the Web
There are sites on the Internet that provide you with searching facilities.
You go to the site and type in the item you want to Search for.
My favorite is Google.
Object orientated programs are an attempt to get over the fact that often programmers invent the wheel again and again in the course of designing a suite of programs. In Java the actions of the program is to execute a series of objects or modules.
For instance there might be an object or class of program lines that address a letter. Get the address from the data base and send the data to a printer that prints out the address in the prescribed lines.
Once that class or object has been written there is no need to write it again. Any time a programmer needs to print envelopes all that is needed is to place that object into the program and the results will follow.
Nested among the the Data is a small script or set of instructions telling the browser to perform a small program. This might be for instance to display the date or the current time or to run a banner with certain information across the top of the site.
Java scripts are useful in that they do not depend on the server I. E. the ISP or the source of the web page to carry out the action.
The action that is commanded by the script is performed on your computer.
If you want to see a Java script use your browser to look at the source of the code.
To do this in Netscape Press View and then page source.
In Internet Explorer the command to view the page source is view and then source.
A large company, University, publisher or government Department may take action at law to protect their ownership. Material on a personal homepage is still owned by someone. The person who owns it may not be able to afford to take legal action to protect their ownership.
Generally it is okay to quote a small excerpt from a piece of work so long as you acknowledge the ownership of the original creator.
there is no special "Internet copyright law". The copyright law for the Internet is the same as for any where else. It is not okay to take large slabs of and other persons hard work and creativity without their permission.
If you e-mail the creator of a piece of work it is most likely they will give you permission to cite parts of it.
It has been established in some jurisdictions that placing a link to another site or material on another site is not a breach of copyright.
If you wish to chase up more material on this its easily done. simply place the words copyright on the Internet into a search engine and you'll come up with a lot of interesting material.
If you think that the Internet is a dangerous place full of hackers, lunatics,
sleaziness and people trying to get your credit card number and rifle your bank
account your are correct.
It is like that - in parts.
Think of it as a large city, most of it is pleasant and exciting, a small part is not.
Stay out of the bad parts.
It is also possible that either a hacker or a file accompanying an e-mail could leave a Trojan horse on your computer. A Trojan horse is a program on your computer which either maliciously damages and your files and operating system or ships data from your computer to another location.
The first line of protection that you have against hackers and Trojan horses is
a personal firewall.
This is a program which:
There are a number of firewalls are available on the Internet. The Norton security package contains both an antivirus component and a personal firewall. The Zone Alarm firewall is available in two versions a "lite" free version and a professional paid for version. There are others. Type "personal firewall" into the Google search engine and I am sure you will find one that will suit you.
Viruses can come in to your computer in a number of ways. Generally they come
attached to e-mail.
Your e-mail posing as a message from your ISP or some other such innocuous message will have attached a file. Most files for personal computers have dot and a 3 letter extension.
For instance the extension .doc is for a Microsoft word document. The extension .jpg is for a graphic. Viruses usually come in executable program type files.
Thus thus any file attached to an e-mail with the extensions .exe, .srn .com .pif should be regarded with the greatest suspicion.
In fact it is good practice not to open any attached file unless you know and trust the sender.
You must not connect a personal computer to the Internet without having full antivirus software installed. There are many packages available, Norton, McAfee, Penicillin, Solo, and VET are a few that come to mind.
They may not be interested in your latest magnus opus. But they are very interested in the numbers you type in for your credit card. They are also interested in data on your bank accounts and passwords.
There is anti key logger software packages available. The best way to locate a suitable package is to type the phrase "anti key logger software" into a search engine like Google and make a selection of what is on offer.
Do not leave your computer unattended and connected to the Internet without
engaging the firewall lock.
Do not give details of your address or phone number on forms or information request unless you are confident this information will not be abused.
Remember to update your virus definitions for your antivirus software - often.
In some cases it benefits you as well as the owner of the Internet site. For instance if you commonly visit a newspaper site, you may receive from the site a cookie. The next time you visit the site it will remember that you've visited the before, perhaps your name if you gave it to the site on your previous visit.
This can be helpful.
On other occasions the cookie is purely for the benefit of the site owner.
You can block cookies on your browser. Some sites are getting so arrogant that they will not let you visit unless you accept a cookie.
The Netscape 7 browser has a cookie manager under a menu item Tools.
You can examine all the cookies that are in your system. You can delete them all if you wish. You can block future cookies.
The Internet Explorer browser allows you to delete cookies - menu item - tools - Internet settings privacy - . under both general and privacy options. It is more complicated to manage than Netscape but worth coming to grips with
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